Sample H15 from The Family Fallout Shelter. Office of Civil and Defence Mobilization. M. P. 15. Pp. 9-19.0010-1900 A part of the XML version of the Brown Corpus2,061 words 1 (0.0%) quote 3 symbolsH15

The Family Fallout Shelter. Office of Civil and Defence Mobilization. M. P. 15. Pp. 9-19.0010-1900

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At the entrance side of the shelter , each roof beam is rested on the inside 4 inches of the block wall . The outside 4-inch space is filled by mortaring blocks on edge . The wooden bracing between the roof beams is placed flush with the inside of the wall . Mortar is poured between this bracing and the 4-inch blocks on edge to complete the wall thickness for radiation shielding . ( For details see inset , fig. 5 .

The first one or two roof boards ( marked `` E '' in fig. 6 ) are slipped into place across the roof beams , from outside the shelter . These boards are nailed to the roof beams by reaching up through the open space between the beams , from inside the shelter . Concrete blocks are passed between the beams and put on the boards . The roof blocks are in two layers and are not mortared together .

Work on the roof continues in this way . The last roof boards are covered with blocks from outside the shelter .

When the roof blocks are all in place , the final rows of wall blocks are mortared into position . The structure is complete . ( See fig. 7 . ) Building plans are on page 21 .

Solid concrete blocks , relatively heavy and dense , are used for this shelter . These blocks are sold in various sizes so it seldom is necessary to cut a block to fit .

Solid blocks are recommended because hollow blocks would have to be filled with concrete to give effective protection .

Bricks are an alternative . If they are used , the walls and roof should be 10 inches thick to give the same protection as the 8-inch solid concrete blocks .

The illustrations in fig. 8 show how to lay a concrete block wall . More detailed instructions may be obtained from your local building supply houses and craftsmen . Other sources of information include the National Concrete Masonry Association , 38 South Dearborn Street , Chicago , Ill. , the Portland Cement Association , 33 West Grand Avenue , Chicago , Ill. , and the Structural Clay Products Association , Washington , D.C. . Aboveground double-wall shelter An outdoor , aboveground fallout shelter also may be built with concrete blocks . ( See fig. 9 , double-wall shelter . ) Most people would have to hire a contractor to build this shelter . Plans are on pages 22 and 23 .

This shelter could be built in regions where water or rock is close to the surface , making it impractical to build an underground shelter .

Two walls of concrete blocks are constructed at least 20 inches apart . The space between them is filled with pit-run gravel or earth . The walls are held together with metal ties placed in the wet mortar as the walls are built .

The roof shown here ( fig. 9 ) is a 6-inch slab of reinforced concrete , covered with at least 20 inches of pit-run gravel . An alternate roof , perhaps more within do-it-yourself reach , could be constructed of heavy wooden roof beams , overlaid with boards and waterproofing . It would have to be covered with at least 28 inches of pit-run gravel .

The materials for a double-wall shelter would cost about $700 . Contractors' charges would be additional . The shelter would provide almost absolute fallout protection . Pre-shaped metal shelter Pre-shaped corrugated metal sections or pre-cast concrete can be used for shelters either above or below ground . These are particularly suitable for regions where water or rock is close to the surface . They form effective fallout shelters when mounded over with earth , as shown in figure 10 .

Materials for this shelter would cost about $700 . A contractor probably would be required to help build it . His charges would be added to the cost of materials . This shelter , as shown on page 24 , would provide almost absolute protection from fallout radiation . An alternate hatchway entrance , shown on page 25 , would reduce the cost of materials $50 to $100 .

The National Lumber Manufacturers Association , Washington , D. C. , is developing plans to utilize specially treated lumber for underground shelter construction . The Structural Clay Products Institute , Washington , D.C. , is working to develop brick and clay products suitable for shelter construction . Underground concrete shelter An underground reinforced concrete shelter can be built by a contractor for about $1,000 to $1,500 , depending on the type of entrance . The shelter shown would provide almost absolute fallout protection .

The illustration ( fig. 11 ) shows this shelter with the roof at ground level and mounded over . The same shelter could be built into an embankment or below ground level . Plans for the shelter , with either a stairway or hatchway entrance , are shown on pages 26 and 27 .

Another type of shelter which gives excellent fallout protection can be built as an added room to the basement of a home under construction . It would add about $500 to the total cost of the home . The shelter illustrated in figure 12 is based on such a room built in a new home in the Washington , D.C. area in the Spring of 1959 .

Important considerations common to each type of shelter are : 1 .

Arrangement of the entrance . 2 .

Ventilation . 3 .

Radio reception . 4 .

Lighting .

The entrance must have at least one right-angle turn . Radiation scatters somewhat like light . Some will go around a corner . The rest continues in a straight line . Therefore , sharp turns in a shelter entrance will reduce radiation intensity inside the shelter .

Ventilation is provided in a concrete block basement shelter by vents in the wall and by the open entrance . A blower may be installed to increase comfort .

A blower is essential for the double-wall shelter and for the underground shelters . It should provide not less than 5 cubic feet per minute of air per person . Vent pipes also are necessary ( as shown in figs. 9 , 10 , and 11 ) , but filters are not .

Radio reception is cut down by the shielding necessary to keep out radiation . As soon as the shelter is completed a radio reception check must be made . It probably will be necessary to install an outside antenna , particularly to receive CONELRAD broadcasts .

Lighting is an important consideration . Continuous low-level lighting may be provided in the shelter by means of a 4-cell hot-shot battery to which is wired a 150-milliampere flashlight-type bulb . Tests have shown that such a device , with a fresh battery , will furnish light continuously for at least 10 days . With a spare battery , a source of light for 2 weeks or more would be assured . A flashlight or electric lantern also should be available for those periods when a brighter light is needed . There should be a regular electrical outlet in the shelter as power may continue in many areas .

Other considerations . -- If there are outside windows in the basement corner where you build a shelter , they should be shielded as shown in the Appendix , page 29 . Other basement windows should be blocked when an emergency threatens . Basement walls that project above the ground should be shielded as shown in the Appendix , page 29 .

In these shelters the entrance should be not more than 2 feet wide . Bunks , or materials to build them , may have to be put inside the enclosure before the shelter walls are completed .

The basement or belowground shelters also will serve for tornado or hurricane protection .

3 . Living in a shelter The radioactivity of fallout decays rapidly at first . Forty-nine hours after an atomic burst the radiation intensity is only about 1 percent of what it was an hour after the explosion . But the radiation may be so intense at the start that one percent may be extremely dangerous .

Therefore , civil defense instructions received over CONELRAD or by other means should be followed . A battery-powered radio is essential . Radiation instruments suitable for home use are available , and would be of value in locating that portion of the home which offers the best protection against fallout radiation . There is a possibility that battery-powered radios with built-in radiation meters may become available . One instrument thus would serve both purposes .

Your local civil defense will gather its own information and will receive broad information from State and Federal sources . It will tell you as soon as possible :

How long to stay in your shelter ; ;

How soon you may go outdoors ; ;

How long you may stay outside .

You should be prepared to stay in your shelter full time for at least several days and to make it your home for 14 days or longer . A checklist in the Appendix ( ( page 30 ) tells what is needed . Families with children will have particular problems . They should provide for simple recreation .

There should be a task for everyone and these tasks should be rotated . Part of the family should be sleeping while the rest is awake .

To break the monotony it may be necessary to invent tasks that will keep the family busy . Records such as diaries can be kept .

The survival of the family will depend largely on information received by radio . A record should be kept of the information and instructions , including the time and date of broadcast .

Family rationing probably will be necessary .

Blowers should be operated periodically on a regular schedule . There will come a time in a basement shelter when the radiation has decayed enough to allow use of the whole basement . However , as much time as possible should be spent within the shelter to hold radiation exposure to a minimum .

The housekeeping problems of living in a shelter will begin as soon as the shelter is occupied . Food , medical supplies , utensils , and equipment , if not already stored in the shelter , must be quickly gathered up and carried into it .

After the family has settled in the shelter , the housekeeping rules should be spelled out by the adult in charge .

Sanitation in the confines of the family shelter will require much thought and planning .

Provision for emergency toilet facilities and disposal of human wastes will be an unfamiliar problem . A covered container such as a kitchen garbage pail might do as a toilet . A 10-gallon garbage can , with a tightly fitting cover , could be used to keep the wastes until it is safe to leave the shelter .

Water rationing will be difficult and should be planned carefully .

A portable electric heater is advisable for shelters in cold climates . It would take the chill from the shelter in the beginning . Even if the electric power fails after an attack , any time that the heater has been used will make the shelter that much more comfortable . Body heat in the close quarters will help keep up the temperature . Warm clothing and bedding , of course , are essential .

Open-flame heating or cooking should be avoided . A flame would use up air .

Some families already have held weekend rehearsals in their home shelters to learn the problems and to determine for themselves what supplies they would need .

4 . If an attack finds you without a prepared shelter Few areas , if any , are as good as prepared shelters but they are worth knowing about .

A family dwelling without a basement provides some natural shielding from fallout radiation . On the ground floor the radiation would be about half what it is outside . The best protection would be on the ground floor in the central part of the house .

A belowground basement can cut the fallout radiation to one-tenth of the outside level . The safest place is the basement corner least exposed to windows and deepest below ground .

If there is time after the warning , the basement shielding could be improved substantially by blocking windows with bricks , dirt , books , magazines , or other heavy material .

5 . Shelter in apartment buildings Large apartment buildings of masonry or concrete provide better natural shelter than the usual family dwellings . In general , such apartments afford more protection than smaller buildings because their walls are thick and there is more space .

The central area of the ground floor of a heavily constructed apartment building , with concrete floors , should provide more fallout protection than the ordinary basement of a family dwelling . The basement of such an apartment building may provide as much natural protection as the specially constructed concrete block shelter recommended for the basement of a family dwelling .

The Federal Government is aiding local governments in several places to survey residential , commercial and industrial buildings to determine what fallout protection they would provide , and for how many people .

The problem for the city apartment dweller is primarily to plan the use of existing space . Such planning will require the cooperation of other occupants and of the apartment management .