Sample E27 from Successful Farming, 59:12 (December, 1961) Used by permission Pp. 51,68"What Can 'Additives' Do for Ruminants?" by Mike Bay P. 52"Which Feed Bunk for You" by Dr. James S. Boyd A part of the XML version of the Brown Corpus2,002 words 3 (0.1%) quotes 2 symbolsE27

Successful Farming, 59:12 (December, 1961) Used by permission

Header auto-generated for TEI version

Knowing specifically what the many feed additives can do and how and when to feed them can make a highly competitive business more profitable for beef , dairy , and sheep men .

The target chart quickly and briefly tells you which additives do what . All the additives listed here are sanctioned for use by the Food and Drug Administration of the federal government . All comments concerning effectiveness and use of drugs have been carefully reviewed by a veterinary medical officer with Aj .

This article assumes that the rations you are feeding your beef , dairy cattle , and sheep are adequately balanced with protein , vitamins , and minerals .

The drug's chemical name is listed , since most states require feed processors to use this name instead of the trade name on the feed tag . In some instances , the trade name is shown in parentheses following the chemical name . This indicates that this drug is being marketed under one trade name only or state regulatory organizations have approved its use on the feed tag .

Here's your feed additive guide for ruminants :

drug's chemical name : Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ( Terramycin ) what it does : Increases rate of gain and improves feed efficiency , aids in the prevention or treatment ( depending on level fed ) of the early stages of shipping fever , prevents or treats bacterial diarrhea , and aids in reducing incidence of bloat and liver abscesses . Milk production may be increased by the anti-infective properties of this drug . How to feed : beef cattle ( finishing ration ) -- To increase rate of gain and improve feed efficiency , feed 75 milligrams per head in daily supplement . Calves -- To increase rate of gain and improve feed efficiency , feed 10 to 25 grams per ton of complete feed . As an aid in the prevention of bacterial diarrhea ( scours ) , feed 50 grams per ton of complete feed . For the treatment of bacterial scours , feed 100-200 grams . For prevention or treatment of bacterial scours , feed 0.1 to 5 milligrams per pound of body weight daily . Beef and dairy -- As an aid in reducing incidence and severity of bloat , provide 75 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride per animal daily . To reduce incidence of liver abscesses , supply 75 milligrams of oxytetracycline activity per head daily . To prevent or treat bacterial diarrhea , furnish 0.1 to 5 milligrams per pound of body weight daily . For the prevention or treatment of the early stages of shipping fever complex , increase feeding level to 0.5 to 2 grams per head per day . For the best results , feed this level to cattle 3 to 5 days preceding shipment and/or 3 to 5 days following their arrival in your feed lot . For treatment of shipping fever , this level should be fed at the onset of the disease symptoms until symptoms disappear . Sheep -- To increase rate of gain and improve feed efficiency , feed 10 to 20 grams per ton . As an aid in the prevention of bacterial diarrhea ( scours ) , feed 50 grams per ton .

Drug's chemical name : Chlortetracycline ( Aureomycin ) what it does : Increases gains , improves feed efficiency , and reduces losses from bacterial infections listed under `` How To Feed '' section . Milk production may be increased by the anti-infective properties of this drug . How to feed : beef -- Not less than 70 milligrams of Aureomycin per head daily to aid in the prevention of liver abscesses in feed-lot beef cattle . Prevention of bacterial pneumonia , shipping fever , as an aid in reduction of losses due to respiratory infections ( infectious rhinotracheitis -- shipping fever complex ) . Feed at level of 70 milligrams per head per day . Treatment of the above diseases : 350 milligrams per head per day for 30 days only . For prevention of these diseases during periods of stress such as shipping , excessive handling , vaccination , extreme weather conditions : 350 milligrams per head per day for 30 days only . As an aid in reducing bacterial diarrhea and preventing foot rot , feed not less than 0.1 milligram per pound of body weight daily . To aid in the prevention of anaplasmosis , feed not less than 0.5 milligram per pound of body weight daily . Dairy -- For calves , feed not less than 50 grams of Aureomycin per ton complete feed as an aid in preventing bacterial diarrhea and foot rot . For cows , feed providing an intake of 0.1 milligram of Aureomycin per pound of body weight daily aids in the reduction of bacterial diarrhea , in the prevention of foot rot , and in the reduction of losses due to respiratory infection ( infectious rhinotracheitis -- shipping fever complex ) . Sheep -- As an aid in reducing losses due to enterotoxemia ( overeating disease ) , feed a complete ration containing not less than 20 and not more than 50 grams of Aureomycin per ton . To reduce vibrionic abortion in breeding sheep , feed 80 milligrams per head daily .

Drug's chemical name : Dynafac . What it does : An aid in getting cattle and sheep on full feed , in improving feed conversion and growth , in reducing bloat and founder , and in controlling scours . How to feed : beef and dairy calves -- 0.2 gram Dynafac per head daily ( 1 gram of premix per head daily ) for promoting growth , feed conversion , bloom , and full feed earlier . Feeder cattle -- Dynafac in a complete ration or 0.3 to 0.4 gram per head per day ( 200 grams of premix per ton complete ration or equivalent . Animals consuming 20 pounds feed daily receive 2 grams Dynafac ) . Aids in minimizing the occurrence of feed-lot bloat due to high consumption of concentrates . Sheep and lambs -- 1.0 gram premix per head per day for promoting growth , feed conversion , and getting lambs on full feed earlier .

Drug's chemical name : Diethylstilbestrol . What it does : Increases rate of gain and improves feed efficiency . How to feed : beef cattle -- 10 milligrams of diethylstilbestrol per head daily . This may be incorporated in complete feeds at the level of 0.4 milligram of diethylstilbestrol per pound of ration -- assuming animal consumes about 25 pounds daily . The drug is also incorporated in supplements . These are to be fed at a rate to provide 10 milligrams DES per head daily . The recommended 10-milligram daily intake level should be maintained . It may be incorporated into cattle creep feeds in levels from 1.0 to 1.5 milligrams of diethylstilbestrol per pound of feed . Sheep fattening rations -- The recommended level for sheep is 2 milligrams daily , and this level should be maintained . Include supplement containing 0.4 to 2 milligrams per pound to provide 2 milligrams per head per day . Caution : Discontinue medication 48 hours before slaughter .

Drug's chemical name : Hydroxazine hydrochloride . What it does : Improves growth rate and feed efficiency of fattening beef animals . How to feed : At the rate of 2-1/2 milligrams per head per day .

Drug's chemical name : Iodinated casein . What it does : Drug elevates the metabolic rate of the cow . Fed to dairy cattle to increase milk production and butterfat percentage . How to feed : 1 to 1-1/2 grams per 100 pounds of body weight . Caution : Cows receiving drug may not be officially tested under breed registry testing programs .

Drug's chemical name : Bacterial and fungal enzymes . ( These enzyme preparations appear on today's feed tags as fermentation extracts of Bacillus subtilis , Apergillus orzae , Niger , and Flavus . ) what it does : Improves utilization of low-moisture corn ( less than 14% ) . How to feed : Greatest benefits have been associated with feeding low-moisture corn in beef-feeding programs . Several firms are merchandising enzyme preparation through feed manufacturers .

Drug's chemical name : Ronnel . What it does : Effectively controls cattle grubs which damage hides and can reduce gains . How to feed : Drug is added to either a protein or mineral supplement for a period of 7 or 14 days . Follow manufacturer's recommendation carefully . Caution : Do not feed to dairy cows and do not feed within 60 days of slaughter .

Drug's chemical name : Methyl polysiloxanes . What it does : Aids in preventing foamy bloat . How to feed : For prevention of foamy bloat , feed at a rate of 0.5 to 2 milligrams per head per day in mineral or salt or feed . For treatment of bloat , drug is fed at a higher level .

Drug's chemical name : Phenothiazine . What it does : Reduces losses from stomach , hookworm , and nodular worms by interfering with reproduction of the female worm by reducing the number of eggs laid and essentially rendering all laid eggs sterile . Also , aids in the control of horn flies by preventing them from hatching in the droppings . How to feed : Treat cattle with 10 grams per 100 pounds body weight with a maximum of 70 grams per animal . Then , for the above parasites , feed continuously at these levels : Feeder cattle -- 2-5 grams of phenothiazine daily ; ; beef calves -- to 1.5 grams daily depending on weight of animal . Treat lambs with 12 grams per head for lambs weighing up to 50 pounds ; ; treat lambs over 50 pounds and adults with 24 grams per animal . For continuous control , feed 1 part phenothiazine to 9 parts minerals or salts . To include in feed , add phenothiazine to supply 0.5 to 1 gram per sheep daily . Caution : Continuous administration is not recommended for lactating cows . Following single-dose treatment , milk should be discarded for 4 days following treatment .

Drug's chemical name : Procaine penicillin . What it does : Aids in reducing the incidence and severity of bloat in beef or dairy cattle on legume pasture . How to feed : Feed 75,000 units or 75 milligrams per head daily .

Drug's chemical name : Sodium propionate . What it does : For the prevention or treatment of acetonemia ( ketosis ) in dairy cows . How to feed : For the prevention of acetonemia ( ketosis ) feed 1/4 pound per day beginning at calving and continuing for 6 weeks . For the treatment of ketosis feed 1/4 to 1/2 pound per day for 10 days .

Drug's chemical name : Sulfaquinoxaline . What it does : Helps control shipping dysentery and coccidiosis in lambs . How to feed : lambs -- feed at level for 2 or 3 days .

Drug's chemical name : Dried rumen bacteria . What it does : Stimulates rumen activity . How to feed : Incorporated in commercially prepared feed at proper levels .

Drug's chemical name : Calcium and sodium lactate . What it does : Prevents and treats acetonemia ( ketosis ) in dairy cows . How to feed : For prevention of ketosis , feed 1/4 pound per head daily for 6 weeks commencing at calving time . For treatment of ketosis , feed 1/2 pound daily until symptoms disappear . Then , feed preventive dose until 6 weeks after calving .

Drug's chemical name : Promazine hydrochloride . What it does : A tranquilizer fed to cattle ( other than lactating dairy cows ) prior to their being subjected to stress conditions such as vaccinating , shipping , weaning calves , and excessive handling . How to feed : Not less than milligram but not more than 1.25 milligrams of additive per pound of body weight . Caution : Additive should not be fed 72 hours before animals are slaughtered . There are three principal feed bunk types for dairy and beef cattle : ( 1 ) Fence-line bunks -- cattle eat from one side while feed is put in from the opposite side of the fence by self-unloading wagons ; ; ( 2 ) Mechanized bunks -- they sit within the feed lot , are filled by a mechanical conveyor above feeding surface ; ; ( 3 ) Special bunks -- as discussed here , they permit cattle to eat from all sides . Feed is put in with an elevator .

Several materials or combinations of materials can be used to construct a satisfactory feed bunk . The selection of materials depends on skills of available labor for installation , cost of materials available locally , and your own preference . No one material is best for all situations . Selecting bunks by economic comparison is usually an individual problem .

Fence-line feeding .

Animals eat only from one side , so the fence-line bunk must be twice as long as the mechanical bunk . These bunks also serve as a fence , so part of the additional cost must be attributed to the fence . Because of their location , on the edge of the feed lot , fence-line bunks are not in the way of mechanical manure removal . Filling these bunks by the same self-unloading wagons used to fill silos spreads cost of the wagons over more time and operations .

All-weather roads must be provided next to the feeding floor so access will be possible all year . This will be a problem in areas of heavy snowfall .