Sample E15 from McCall's Needlework and Crafts, Spring-Summer, 1961 Used by permission Pp. 70-71, 77 "Pottery from Old Molds" P. 16"Knitting Knacks" A part of the XML version of the Brown Corpus2,002 words 7 (0.3%) quotes 24 symbols 2 formulasE15

McCall's Needlework and Crafts, Spring-Summer, 1961 Used by permission

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Note : Directions are written for those who have had previous experience in making pottery . Instructions for preparing clay , drying , glazing and firing are not given .

Equipment : Basic pottery studio equipment . Wooden butter molds and cookie presses .

Materials : Ceramic modeling clay : red , white or buff . Stoneware clay for tiles . Glazes , one-stroke ceramic colors , stains , cones as indicated in the individual instructions .

General directions : Use well-wedged clay , free of air bubbles and pliable enough to bend without cracking . Clean wooden molds and presses thoroughly ; ; they must be free of oil , wax and dust . Pressing designs : The size of wooden mold will determine the amount of clay needed . Roll clay to thickness indicated in individual instructions . Whenever possible , use the wooden mold as a pattern for cutting clay . When mold has more than one design cavity , make individual paper patterns . Place mold or paper pattern on rolled clay and cut clay by holding knife in vertical position ( cut more pieces than required for project to make allowance for defects ; ; experiment with defects for decoration techniques of glazes and colors ) . Place the cut clay piece loosely over the carved cavity design side of wooden mold . To obtain clear impression of mold , press clay gently but firmly into mold cavity , starting at center and working to outer edges . Trim excess clay away from outer edges . Check thickness of clay and build up thin areas by moistening surface with a little water and adding small pieces of clay . Be sure to press the additional clay firmly into place without locking in air bubbles . Allow project to stand for about five minutes ( if wooden press mold is a good antique , do not leave clay in too long as the dampness may cause mold to crack ) .

To release clay from mold , place hands in a cupped position around project ; ; gently lift the edge on far side , then continue to release edge completely around mold . Slight tapping on the underside of mold will help release the clay , but too much agitation will cause the clay to become soft and will interfere with removal of clay from mold . Place a piece of plaster wall board or plaster bat on clay and reverse bat , clay and mold in one action . This will prevent the clay from twisting or bending , causing warping when fired . Place project on table and carefully lift the mold off . Study surface of clay for defects or desired corrections . If clay is slightly out of shape , square straight sides with guide sticks or rulers pressed against opposite sides , or smooth round pieces with damp fingers . If the background of design is too smooth , or you wish to create a wood-grained effect , it may be added at this time with a dull tool such as the handle of a fine paintbrush . Make slight , smooth grooves rather than cuts for the texture ( cuts could cause air pockets under the glaze creating pinholes or craters in the glaze during firing ) . Leave the clay on plaster board to dry slowly , covered lightly with a loose piece of plastic or cloth to prevent warping .

Rectangular tiles ( opposite page , right top ) : Stoneware clay was used . Clay was rolled to 1/4'' '' thickness . Back of clay scored or roughened for proper gripping surface . No bisque firing . Glazed with two coats of Creek-Turn white stoneware glaze ( no glaze on sides or bottom ) . Decorated on unfired glaze with one coat of one-stroke ceramic colors ; ; raised details of designs were colored in shades of yellow-green , blue-green , brown and pink . Tiles were fired once to cone 05 .

Round plaque ( opposite page , bottom ) : White clay was used , rolled to 1/4'' '' thickness . Bisque fired to cone 05 . Stained with Jacquelyn's ceramic unfired stain , polished , following manufacturer's directions . Opaque cantaloupe and transparent wood brown were used . No further firing .

Paperweight ( opposite page , top left ) : Red clay was used , rolled 1/2'' '' thick . Mold was used as pattern and clay cut by holding knife at about 45-degree angle , to form an undercut , making base smaller than the pattern top . While clay is still pressed in mold , press three equally spaced holes 1/4'' '' deep , using pencil eraser , in bottom of clay to allow for proper drying and firing . Paperweight may be personalized on back while clay is leather hard . Bisque fired to cone 05 . Unglazed .

Jars with lids ( opposite page , top left ) : Remove wooden design head from bowl of butter mold . Fill small hole in bowl with clay . Make paper patterns for sections of jar and lid ( see Fig. 1 , opposite page ) . Measurements for rectangular pattern piece A are obtained by measuring inside circumference and depth of butter mold bowl . Pattern for circular base piece B is diameter of Aj . Use wooden design head of mold for pattern C ; ; pattern D for lid fits over top diameter of Aj . Pattern for inner lid piece E fits inside Aj . Jars are assembled in bowl of butter mold .

Use white or buff clay , rolled to 3/16'' '' thickness . Place patterns on rolled clay and cut around them with knife in vertical position . Place clay pieces on wall board .

To assemble jar , put paper pattern B for base in bottom of mold and clay disk B on top . Line sides of mold with paper pattern Aj . Bevel and score ends of clay piece A so that they overlap about 1/2'' '' and make even thickness . Place clay piece A inside ; ; use slip to join overlapped ends together . Join B to bottom of A , scoring and reinforcing with clay coil . Trim excess clay from around lip of mold and set aside while assembling lid .

To assemble lid , press clay piece C in cavity of wooden design head . Press clay into mold as instructed in General Directions . Score plain side of C and leave in mold . Score one side of disk D , join to C ; ; score other side of D and one side of disk E and join as before . While assembled lid is still on design head , gently but firmly press it on plaster board . If design head has a deep cavity , clay lid will be quite thick at this point ; ; press eraser of pencil gently 1/4'' '' deep into deep clay to allow vent for proper drying and firing . Check fit of lid on jar ; ; if inner lid is too big , trim to fit , allowing room for thickness of glaze . Remove lid from head of mold . Remove jar from mold . Place jar on plaster board with lid in place to dry slowly . Bisque fire to cone 08 with lid on jar .

For an antique effect on jars , brush Creek-Turn brown toner on bisque ware and sponge it off . Glaze with two coats of clear or transparent matt glaze . The large jar was brushed with Creek-Turn green toner and sponged off . Glaze with two coats of matt glazes in turquoise with touches of blossom pink on lid . When dry they were fired to cone 06-05 .

Little folks set : ( Made from modern wooden molds Af . ) Roll white clay to 3/16'' '' thickness . Salt and pepper : Use mold to cut four side pieces . For top and bottom pieces , use short end of mold as measurement guide . Press the side pieces of clay into cavity of mold . Trim excess clay from rim of mold . Cut beveled edge on the long sides of clay at a 45-degree angle to miter corners . Score beveled edges and remove pieces from mold ; ; place design-side up on plaster board . Make all four sides . Cut clay top and base pieces ; ; place on plaster board . Allow all pieces to become leather hard before constructing shaker . To assemble : Construct sides , bottom and top as for box , using slip on scored edges and coils of clay to reinforce seams . Join the four sides together first , then add the base ; ; add top last . Use water on finger to smooth seams and edges . Turn shaker upside down . Recess base slightly to allow room for stopper . Cut hole in base for cork stopper . Add holes in top , forming `` S '' for salt and `` P '' for pepper . Set aside to dry thoroughly . Sugar and creamer : Cut a strip of clay for sides long enough and wide enough for three impressions of mold design . Press clay into cavity of one mold three times ; ; bevel overlapping ends for splice joint , score beveled edges . Form clay strip into a cylinder ; ; use slip to join scored ends . Place cylinder on a disk of clay slightly larger than cylinder . Score bottom edge of cylinder and join to disk with slip . Trim away excess clay ; ; reinforce seam with a coil of clay . This will form the sugar bowl . Make creamer the same .

Handle for creamer is a strip of clay 1/2'' '' wide and 3-1/2'' '' long . To add handle , place a wooden dowel against the inside wall of creamer . Score outside of container where handle ends will be joined . Bend handle ; ; press scored handle ends firmly in place using dowel to reinforce container while pressing ; ; use slip to join . To form spout , between two designs , dampen area slightly and gently push clay outward . Make lid for sugar bowl the same as jar lids , omitting design disk . Cut a notch in lid for spoon handle if desired . Set aside to dry with lid on sugar bowl . Vases : Make same as salt and pepper shakers , leaving off top pieces . Vases may be made into candles by filling with melted wax and a wick . Napkin holder : Cut a piece of clay for base and two for sides each about Af ( long enough for three impressions of mold ) . Press the two sides into cavity of one mold three times . Put cut pieces on plaster board to dry to firm leather-hard state . Score side edges of base ; ; join sides and base with slip and reinforce with coil . A cardboard pattern cut to fit inside holder will help to prevent warping . Place pattern inside holder ; ; use three strips of clay to hold in place ( see Fig. 2 , page 71 ) . Do not use wood as it will not shrink with the clay and would cause breakage .

Let all projects dry slowly for several days . Clean greenware . Bisque fire to cone 08 . Inside of pieces was glazed with three coats of Creek-Turn bottle green antique glaze . Outside was finished with Creek-Turn brown toner brushed on and sponged off to give antique finish . Fired to cone 06-05 .

Changing colors to change from one color yarn to another : When changing from one color to another , whether working on right or wrong side , pick up the new strand from underneath dropped strand . Photograph shows the wrong side of work with light strand being picked up under dark strand in position to be purled . To measure work : Spread article on flat surface to required width before measuring length at center .

Measuring armhole to measure armhole : Mark row on which first stitches have been bound off for armhole by drawing a contrasting colored thread through it . Place work on a flat surface and smooth out . Measure straight up from marked row . See illustration . To insert markers : When directions read `` sl a marker on needle '' , put a small safety pin , paper clip , or commercial ring marker on needle . In working , always slip marker from one needle to another . To mark a row or stitch , tie contrasting thread around end of row or stitch to be marked .

Backstitching seam to sew seams with backstitch : Most seams are sewn with backstitch , especially on curved , slanted or loose edges . Pin right sides of pieces together , keeping edges even and matching rows or patterns . Thread matching yarn in tapestry needle . Run end of yarn through several stitches along edge to secure ; ; backstitch pieces together close to edge . Do not draw yarn too tight . See illustration . To sew in sleeves : Place sleeve seam at center underarm and center of sleeve cap at shoulder seam . Ease in any extra fullness evenly around . Backstitch seam .

Weaving seam to weave seams together : Straight vertical edges , such as those at the back seam of a sock , can be woven together invisibly . Thread matching yarn in tapestry needle . Hold edges together , right side up .