Sample C12 from The Christian Science Monitor, October 17, 1961, p.4 "Growing Service..." by Frederick H. Guidry "Nostalgia for the Human" by Dorothy Grafly "Beethoven Heard..." by Louis Chapin A part of the XML version of the Brown Corpus2,058 words 159 (7.7%) quotes 9 symbolsC12

Used by permission of The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor, October 17, 1961, p.4

Typographical Errors: Futhermore [0330]and and [0770]predominately [0490]

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Radio is easily outdistancing television in its strides to reach the minority listener . Lower costs and a larger number of stations are the key factors making such specialization possible .

The mushrooming of FM outlets , offering concerts ( both jazz and classical ) , lectures , and other special events , is a phenomenon which has had a fair amount of publicity .

Not so well known is the growth of broadcasting operations aimed wholly or partly at Negro listeners -- an audience which , in the United States , comprises some 19,000,000 people with $20,000,000,000 to spend each year .

Of course , the nonwhite listener does his share of television watching . He even buys a lot of the products he sees advertised -- despite the fact that the copy makes no special bid for his favor and sponsors rarely use any but white models in commercials .

But the growing number of Negro-appeal radio stations , plus evidence of strong listener support of their advertisers , give time salesmen an impressive argument as they approach new prospects . It is estimated that more than 600 stations ( of a total of 3,400 ) do a significant amount of programing for the Negro . At least 60 stations devote all of their time to reaching this audience in about half of the 50 states .

These and other figures and comments have been reported in a special supplement of Sponsor magazine , a trade publication for radio and TV advertisers . For 10 years Sponsor has issued an annual survey of the size and characteristics of the Negro market and of successful techniques for reaching this market through radio .

In the past 10 years , Sponsor observes , these trends have become apparent : Negro population in the U.S. has increased 25 per cent while the white population was growing by 18 per cent . `` The forgotten 15 million '' -- as Sponsor tagged the Negro market in its first survey -- has become a better-remembered 19 million .

Advertisers are changing their attitudes , both as to the significance of this market and the ways of speaking to it .

Stations programing to Negro listeners are having to upgrade their shows in order to keep pace with rising educational , economic , and cultural levels . Futhermore , the station which wants real prestige must lead or participate in community improvement projects , not simply serve on the air .

In the last decade the number of Negro-appeal radio program hours has risen at least 15 per cent , and the number of Negro-appeal stations has increased 30 per cent , according to a research man quoted by Sponsor .

A year ago the Negro Radio Association was formed to spur research which the 30-odd member stations are sure will bring in more business .

The 1960 census underscored the explosive character of the population growth . It also brought home proof of something a casual observer might have missed : that more than half of the U.S. Negroes live outside the southeastern states . Also , the state with the largest number of Negroes is New York -- not in the South at all .

In New York City , WLIB boasts `` more community service programs than any other Negro station '' and `` one of the largest Negro news staffs in America '' . And WWRL's colorful mobile unit , cruising predominately Negro neighborhoods , is a frequent reminder of that station's round-the-clock dedication to nonwhite interests . Recently , WWRL won praise for its expose of particular cases of employment agency deceit . A half-dozen other stations in the New York area also bid for attention of the city's Negro population , up about 50 per cent in the past decade .

In all big cities outside the South , and even in small towns within the South , radio stations can be found beaming some or all of their programs at Negro listeners . The Keystone Broadcasting System's Negro network includes 360 affiliated stations , whose signals reach more than half the total U.S. Negro population .

One question which inevitably crops up is whether such stations have a future in a nation where the Negro is moving into a fully integrated status .

Whatever the long-range impact of integration , the owners of Negro-appeal radio stations these days know they have an audience and that it is loyal . Advertisers have discovered the tendency of Negroes to shop for brand names they have heard on stations catering to their special interests . And many advertisers have been happy with the results of letting a Negro disc jockey phrase the commercial in his own words , working only from a fact sheet .

What sets Negro-appeal programing apart from other radio shows ? ? Sponsor magazine notes the stress on popular Negro bands and singers ; ; rhythm-and-blues mood music ; ; `` race '' music , folk songs and melodies , and gospel programs . Furthermore , news and special presentations inform the listener about groups , projects , and personalities rarely mentioned on a general-appeal station . Advertising copy frequently takes into account matters of special Negro concern .

Sponsor quotes John McLendon of the McLendon-Ebony station group as saying that the Southern Negro is becoming conscious of quality and `` does not wish to be associated with radio which is any way degrading to his race ; ; he tends to shy away from the hooting and hollering personalities that originally made Negro radio programs famous '' .

The sociological impact is perhaps most eloquently summed up in this quotation of J. Walter Carroll of KSAN , San Francisco :

`` Negro-appeal radio is more important to the Negro today , because it provides a direct and powerful mirror in which the Negro can hear and see his ambitions , achievements and desires . It will continue to be important as a means of orientation to the Negro , seeking to become urbanized , as he tries to make adjustment to the urban life . Negro radio is vitally necessary during the process of assimilation '' .

Presentation of `` The Life And Times Of John Sloan '' in the Delaware Art Center here suggests a current nostalgia for human values in art .

Staged by way of announcing the gift of a large and intimate Sloan collection by the artist's widow , Helen Farr Sloan , to the Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts , the exhibition presents a survey of Sloan's work . From early family portraits , painted before he entered the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts , the chronology extends to a group of paintings executed in his last year ( 1951 ) and still part of his estate .

Few artists have left a life work so eloquent of the period in which they lived . Few who have painted the scenes around them have done so with so little bitterness . The paintings , drawings , prints , and illustrations all reflect the manners , costumes , and mores of America in the first half of the present century .

Obviously Sloan's early years were influenced by his close friend Robert Henri . As early as 1928 , however , the Sloan style began to change . The dark pigments of the early work were superseded by a brighter palette . The solidity of brush stroke yielded to a hatching technique that finally led to virtual abandonment of American genres in favor of single figure studies and studio nudes .

The exhibition presents all phases of Sloan's many-sided art . In addition to the paintings are drawings , prints , and illustrations . Sloan created such works for newspaper supplements before syndication threw him out of a job and sent him to roam the streets of New York , thereby building for America an incomparable city survey from paintings of McSorley's Saloon to breezy clotheslines on city roofs .

One of the most appealing of the rooftop canvases is `` Sun And Wind On The Roof '' , with a woman and child bracing themselves against flapping clothes and flying birds . Although there are landscapes in the show ( one of the strongest is a vista of `` Gloucester Harbor '' in 1915 ) , the human element was the compelling factor in Sloan's art .

Significant are such canvases as `` Bleeker Street , Saturday Night '' , with its typically American crowd ( Sloan never went abroad ) ; ; the multifigure `` Traveling Carnival '' , in which action is vivified by lighting ; ; or `` Carmine Theater , 1912 '' , the only canvas with an ash can ( and foraging dog ) , although Sloan was a member of the famous `` Eight '' , and of the so-called `` Ash-Can School '' , a term he resented .

Not all the paintings , however , are of cities . The exhibition touches briefly on his sojourn in the Southwest ( `` Koshare in the Dust '' , a vigorous Indian dance , and landscapes suggest the influence of western color on his palette ) .

The fact that Sloan was an extrovert , concerned primarily with what he saw , adds greatly to the value of his art as a human chronicle .

There are 151 items in the Wilmington show , including one painting by each member of the `` Eight '' , as well as work by Sloan's friends and students . Supplementing the actual art are memorabilia -- correspondence , diaries , books from the artist's library , etc. . All belong to the collection being given to Wilmington over a period of years by Mrs. Sloan , who has cherished such revelatory items ever since she first studied with Sloan at the Art Students League , New York , in the 1920's .

To enable students and the public to spot Sloan forgeries , the Delaware Art Center ( according to its director , Bruce St. John ) will maintain a complete file of photographs of all Sloan works , as well as a card index file . The entire Sloan collection will be made available at the center to all serious art students and historians .

The current exhibition , which remains on view through Oct. 29 , has tapped 14 major collections and many private sources .

Any musician playing Beethoven here , where Beethoven was born , is likely to examine his own interpretations with special care . In a sense , he is offering Bonn what its famous son ( who left as a youth ) never did -- the sound of the composer's mature style .

Robert Riefling , who gave the only piano recital of the recently concluded 23rd Beethoven Festival , penetrated deep into the spirit of the style . His readings were careful without being fussy , and they were authoritative without being presumptuous . The 32 C Minor Variations with which he opened moved fluently yet logically from one to another , leaving the right impression of abundance under discipline .

The D Minor Sonata , Op. 31 No. 2 , introduced by dynamically shaped arpeggios , was most engaging in its moments of quasi-recitative -- single lines in which the fingers seemed to be feeling their way toward the idea to come . These inwardly dramatic moments showed the kind of `` opera style '' of which Beethoven was genuinely capable , but which did not take so kindly to the mechanics of staging .

Two late Sonatas , Op. 110 and 111 , were played with similar insight , the disarming simplicities of the Op. 111 Adagio made plain without ever becoming obvious . The two were separated from each other by the Six Bagatelles of Op. 126 . Herr Riefling , in everything he gave his large Beethoven Hall audience , proved himself as an interpreter of unobtrusive authority .

Volker Wangenheim , who conducted Bonn's Stadtisches Orchester on the following evening , made one more conscious of the process of interpretation . Herr Wangenheim has only recently become the city's music director , and is a young man with a clear flair for the podium .

But he weighted the Eighth Symphony , at times , with a shuddering subjectivity which seemed considerably at odds with the music . He might have been hoping , to all appearances , that this relatively sunny symphony , in conjunction with the Choral Fantasy at the end of the program , could amount to something like the Ninth ; ; but no amount of head-tossing could make it so .

The conductor's preoccupation with the business of starting and stopping caused occasional raggedness , as with the first orchestra entrance in the Fourth Piano Concerto , but when he put his deliberations and obsequies aside and let the music move as designed , it did so with plenty of spring .

The concerto's soloist , Hans Richter-Haaser , played with compensatory ease and economy , though without the consummate plasticity to which we had been treated on the previous evening by Herr Riefling . His was a burgomaster's Beethoven , solid and sensible .

Everybody returned after intermission for the miscellaneous sweepings of the Fantasy For Piano , Chorus , And Orchestra In C Minor , made up by its composer to fill out one of his programs . The entrance of the Stadtisches Gesangverein ( Bonn's civic chorus ) was worth all the waiting , however , as the young Rhenish voices finally brought the music to life .

The last program of this festival , which during two weeks had sampled most compositional categories , brought the Cologne Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester and Rundfunkchor to Bonn's gold-filled hall for a performance of the Missa Solemnis .