Radio is easily outdistancing television in its strides to reach the minority listener .
Lower costs and a larger number of stations are the key factors making such specialization possible .
The mushrooming of FM outlets , offering concerts ( both jazz and classical ) , lectures , and other special events , is a phenomenon which has had a fair amount of publicity .
Not so well known is the growth of broadcasting operations aimed wholly or partly at Negro listeners -- an audience which , in the United States , comprises some 19,000,000 people with $20,000,000,000 to spend each year .
Of course , the nonwhite listener does his share of television watching .
He even buys a lot of the products he sees advertised -- despite the fact that the copy makes no special bid for his favor and sponsors rarely use any but white models in commercials .
But the growing number of Negro-appeal radio stations , plus evidence of strong listener support of their advertisers , give time salesmen an impressive argument as they approach new prospects .
It is estimated that more than 600 stations ( of a total of 3,400 ) do a significant amount of programing for the Negro .
At least 60 stations devote all of their time to reaching this audience in about half of the 50 states .
These and other figures and comments have been reported in a special supplement of Sponsor magazine , a trade publication for radio and TV advertisers .
For 10 years Sponsor has issued an annual survey of the size and characteristics of the Negro market and of successful techniques for reaching this market through radio .
In the past 10 years , Sponsor observes , these trends have become apparent :
Negro population in the U.S. has increased 25 per cent while the white population was growing by 18 per cent .
`` The forgotten 15 million '' -- as Sponsor tagged the Negro market in its first survey -- has become a better-remembered 19 million .
Advertisers are changing their attitudes , both as to the significance of this market and the ways of speaking to it .
Stations programing to Negro listeners are having to upgrade their shows in order to keep pace with rising educational , economic , and cultural levels .
Futhermore , the station which wants real prestige must lead or participate in community improvement projects , not simply serve on the air .
In the last decade the number of Negro-appeal radio program hours has risen at least 15 per cent , and the number of Negro-appeal stations has increased 30 per cent , according to a research man quoted by Sponsor .
A year ago the Negro Radio Association was formed to spur research which the 30-odd member stations are sure will bring in more business .
The 1960 census underscored the explosive character of the population growth .
It also brought home proof of something a casual observer might have missed : that more than half of the U.S. Negroes live outside the southeastern states .
Also , the state with the largest number of Negroes is New York -- not in the South at all .
In New York City , WLIB boasts `` more community service programs than any other Negro station '' and `` one of the largest Negro news staffs in America '' .
And WWRL's colorful mobile unit , cruising predominately Negro neighborhoods , is a frequent reminder of that station's round-the-clock dedication to nonwhite interests .
Recently , WWRL won praise for its expose of particular cases of employment agency deceit .
A half-dozen other stations in the New York area also bid for attention of the city's Negro population , up about 50 per cent in the past decade .
In all big cities outside the South , and even in small towns within the South , radio stations can be found beaming some or all of their programs at Negro listeners .
The Keystone Broadcasting System's Negro network includes 360 affiliated stations , whose signals reach more than half the total U.S. Negro population .
One question which inevitably crops up is whether such stations have a future in a nation where the Negro is moving into a fully integrated status .
Whatever the long-range impact of integration , the owners of Negro-appeal radio stations these days know they have an audience and that it is loyal .
Advertisers have discovered the tendency of Negroes to shop for brand names they have heard on stations catering to their special interests .
And many advertisers have been happy with the results of letting a Negro disc jockey phrase the commercial in his own words , working only from a fact sheet .
What sets Negro-appeal programing apart from other radio shows ? ?
Sponsor magazine notes the stress on popular Negro bands and singers ; ;
rhythm-and-blues mood music ; ;
`` race '' music , folk songs and melodies , and gospel programs .
Furthermore , news and special presentations inform the listener about groups , projects , and personalities rarely mentioned on a general-appeal station .
Advertising copy frequently takes into account matters of special Negro concern .
Sponsor quotes John McLendon of the McLendon-Ebony station group as saying that the Southern Negro is becoming conscious of quality and `` does not wish to be associated with radio which is any way degrading to his race ; ;
he tends to shy away from the hooting and hollering personalities that originally made Negro radio programs famous '' .
The sociological impact is perhaps most eloquently summed up in this quotation of J. Walter Carroll of KSAN , San Francisco :
`` Negro-appeal radio is more important to the Negro today , because it provides a direct and powerful mirror in which the Negro can hear and see his ambitions , achievements and desires .
It will continue to be important as a means of orientation to the Negro , seeking to become urbanized , as he tries to make adjustment to the urban life .
Negro radio is vitally necessary during the process of assimilation '' .
Presentation of `` The Life And Times Of John Sloan '' in the Delaware Art Center here suggests a current nostalgia for human values in art .
Staged by way of announcing the gift of a large and intimate Sloan collection by the artist's widow , Helen Farr Sloan , to the Wilmington Society of the Fine Arts , the exhibition presents a survey of Sloan's work .
From early family portraits , painted before he entered the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts , the chronology extends to a group of paintings executed in his last year ( 1951 ) and still part of his estate .
Few artists have left a life work so eloquent of the period in which they lived .
Few who have painted the scenes around them have done so with so little bitterness .
The paintings , drawings , prints , and illustrations all reflect the manners , costumes , and mores of America in the first half of the present century .
Obviously Sloan's early years were influenced by his close friend Robert Henri .
As early as 1928 , however , the Sloan style began to change .
The dark pigments of the early work were superseded by a brighter palette .
The solidity of brush stroke yielded to a hatching technique that finally led to virtual abandonment of American genres in favor of single figure studies and studio nudes .
The exhibition presents all phases of Sloan's many-sided art .
In addition to the paintings are drawings , prints , and illustrations .
Sloan created such works for newspaper supplements before syndication threw him out of a job and sent him to roam the streets of New York , thereby building for America an incomparable city survey from paintings of McSorley's Saloon to breezy clotheslines on city roofs .
One of the most appealing of the rooftop canvases is `` Sun And Wind On The Roof '' , with a woman and child bracing themselves against flapping clothes and flying birds .
Although there are landscapes in the show ( one of the strongest is a vista of `` Gloucester Harbor '' in 1915 ) , the human element was the compelling factor in Sloan's art .
Significant are such canvases as `` Bleeker Street , Saturday Night '' , with its typically American crowd ( Sloan never went abroad ) ; ;
the multifigure `` Traveling Carnival '' , in which action is vivified by lighting ; ;
or `` Carmine Theater , 1912 '' , the only canvas with an ash can ( and foraging dog ) , although Sloan was a member of the famous `` Eight '' , and of the so-called `` Ash-Can School '' , a term he resented .
Not all the paintings , however , are of cities .
The exhibition touches briefly on his sojourn in the Southwest ( `` Koshare in the Dust '' , a vigorous Indian dance , and landscapes suggest the influence of western color on his palette ) .
The fact that Sloan was an extrovert , concerned primarily with what he saw , adds greatly to the value of his art as a human chronicle .
There are 151 items in the Wilmington show , including one painting by each member of the `` Eight '' , as well as work by Sloan's friends and students .
Supplementing the actual art are memorabilia -- correspondence , diaries , books from the artist's library , etc. .
All belong to the collection being given to Wilmington over a period of years by Mrs. Sloan , who has cherished such revelatory items ever since she first studied with Sloan at the Art Students League , New York , in the 1920's .
To enable students and the public to spot Sloan forgeries , the Delaware Art Center ( according to its director , Bruce St. John ) will maintain a complete file of photographs of all Sloan works , as well as a card index file .
The entire Sloan collection will be made available at the center to all serious art students and historians .
The current exhibition , which remains on view through Oct. 29 , has tapped 14 major collections and many private sources .
Any musician playing Beethoven here , where Beethoven was born , is likely to examine his own interpretations with special care .
In a sense , he is offering Bonn what its famous son ( who left as a youth ) never did -- the sound of the composer's mature style .
Robert Riefling , who gave the only piano recital of the recently concluded 23rd Beethoven Festival , penetrated deep into the spirit of the style .
His readings were careful without being fussy , and they were authoritative without being presumptuous .
The 32 C Minor Variations with which he opened moved fluently yet logically from one to another , leaving the right impression of abundance under discipline .
The D Minor Sonata , Op. 31 No. 2 , introduced by dynamically shaped arpeggios , was most engaging in its moments of quasi-recitative -- single lines in which the fingers seemed to be feeling their way toward the idea to come .
These inwardly dramatic moments showed the kind of `` opera style '' of which Beethoven was genuinely capable , but which did not take so kindly to the mechanics of staging .
Two late Sonatas , Op. 110 and 111 , were played with similar insight , the disarming simplicities of the Op. 111 Adagio made plain without ever becoming obvious .
The two were separated from each other by the Six Bagatelles of Op. 126 .
Herr Riefling , in everything he gave his large Beethoven Hall audience , proved himself as an interpreter of unobtrusive authority .
Volker Wangenheim , who conducted Bonn's Stadtisches Orchester on the following evening , made one more conscious of the process of interpretation .
Herr Wangenheim has only recently become the city's music director , and is a young man with a clear flair for the podium .
But he weighted the Eighth Symphony , at times , with a shuddering subjectivity which seemed considerably at odds with the music .
He might have been hoping , to all appearances , that this relatively sunny symphony , in conjunction with the Choral Fantasy at the end of the program , could amount to something like the Ninth ; ;
but no amount of head-tossing could make it so .
The conductor's preoccupation with the business of starting and stopping caused occasional raggedness , as with the first orchestra entrance in the Fourth Piano Concerto , but when he put his deliberations and obsequies aside and let the music move as designed , it did so with plenty of spring .
The concerto's soloist , Hans Richter-Haaser , played with compensatory ease and economy , though without the consummate plasticity to which we had been treated on the previous evening by Herr Riefling .
His was a burgomaster's Beethoven , solid and sensible .
Everybody returned after intermission for the miscellaneous sweepings of the Fantasy For Piano , Chorus , And Orchestra In C Minor , made up by its composer to fill out one of his programs .
The entrance of the Stadtisches Gesangverein ( Bonn's civic chorus ) was worth all the waiting , however , as the young Rhenish voices finally brought the music to life .
The last program of this festival , which during two weeks had sampled most compositional categories , brought the Cologne Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester and Rundfunkchor to Bonn's gold-filled hall for a performance of the Missa Solemnis .